Friday, November 16, 2012

The Future of Carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP)

High-performance polymers provide light, stable materials that also resist high temperatures, and find more and more applications from leisure goods to aerospace.

The Dreamliner from Boeing marked the launch of a new generation of airliners. Around 50% of the aluminum formerly used in aircraft construction has been replaced by Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) composites, which are lighter but at least equally stable. Carmakers like BMW and carbon fiber manufacturers have teamed up to replace major car components with CFRP. These are just two examples of how new materials are revolutionizing the manufacturing industries.

Boeing and CRFP Technology

Carbon-fiber-reinforced polymer or carbon-fiber-reinforced plastic (CFRP or CRP or often simply carbon fiber), is an extremely strong and light fiber-reinforced polymer which contains carbon fibers. The polymer is most often epoxy, but other polymers, such as polyester, vinyl ester or nylon, are sometimes used. The composite may contain other fibers, such as Kevlar, aluminium, or glass fibers, as well as carbon fiber. The strongest and most expensive of these additives, carbon nanotubes, are contained in some primarily polymer baseball bats, car parts and even golf clubswhere economically viable.

Lexus LFA
Usage of CRFP in Super Cars
The Relation of Carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) with A Supercar

The Lexus LFA is a two-seat supercar from Lexus. It is the second model in the F marque line of performance vehicles from Lexus, following the IS F. As well as its low weight and high strength, carbon fibre reinforced plastic (cFrP) also gave the LFA’s designers a far higher degree of design freedom, allowing them to create shapes, curves and edges that would have been impossible with metal.
The production Lexus LFA features a new V10 engine and a carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) body. CFRP materials account for 65 percent of the LFA's body composition by mass.

Technology of Carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP)

DIALEAD composite is a carbon fiber composite material compressed by resin. The formal name is carbon fiber reinforced plastics or CFRP. Taking advantage of excellent properties not available from conventional metals and ceramics, the product is widely used in various applications.

                                                               File:Cfk heli slw.jpg
                                                            Frame of CFRP

Logic Behind Usage of CFRP rather than Aluminium - Impact on Performance of Super Cars

Lightweight / high stiffness
Low bending
High-speed operation
Vibration suppression
Space saving
About 1/4 space gravity compared with iron
About 2/3 of aluminum
Stiffness and strength higher than iron
Early attenuation of vibration possible
High thermal conductivity
Lightweight heat sink
Stable performance at high temperatures
Thermal conductivity equivalent to copper
Higher thermal conductivity realized compared with common plastic materials.

Low coefficient of thermal expansion
Dimensional stability
High precision parts
Excels in thermal dimensional stability
Coefficient of thermal expansion can be made to zero by composite design.

Another Applications of CFRP

The coefficient of thermal expansion can be controlled by optimizing carbon fiber mixing, and can be made to zero, depending on design.In addition to low thermal expansion, lightweight, and high stiffness, heat sink and other thermal controls can be realized, utilizing the product's property of thermal conductivity only in the orientation of the fiber.
Artificial satellite
Structural materials for the antenna of large radio telescope
Products are used for antiseismic reinforcement and repair of structures, taking advantage of their lightweight, high stiffness and corrosion resistance.
Deck reinforcement
Bridge pier reinforcement
Propeller shaft
Thanks to the weight reduction and high stiffness characterizing DIALEAD, the critical number of revolutions can be Increased.
C/C materials (Carbon / carbon fiber composite materials)
Excellent strength and wear resistance under high temperatures is the reason for the materials application in a wide range of braking materials from racing cars to airplanes.
High performance carbon fiber composite roller for industrial use
With little run-out, our product enables high precision, wide film production, and printing.
Beams for transfer machines
High stiffness and weight reduction achieve vibration damping in a short period of time, improving tact time and productivity.

Pick for transferring semiconductor wafer
Robot hand for liquid crystal glass
In addition to lightweight and high stiffness, the excellent vibration damping property realizes the improvement of productivity in the field of mechatronics.


Composites and Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer

Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) is a Polymer Matrix Composite material reinforced by carbon fibers.

The reinforcing dispersed phase may be in form of either continuous or discontinuous carbon fibers of diameter about 0.0004” (10 mkm) commonly woven into a cloth.
Carbon fibers are very expensive but they possess the highest specific (divided by weight) mechanical properties: modulus of elasticity andstrength.

Carbon fibers are used for reinforcing polymer matrix due to the following their properties:
  1. Very high modulus of elasticity exceeding that of steel;
  2. High tensile strength, which may reach 1000 ksi (7 GPa);
  3. Low density: 114 lb/ft³ (1800 kg/m³);
  4. High chemical inertness.

The main disadvantage of carbon (Graphite) fibers is catastrophic mode of failure (carbon fibers are brittle).
The types of carbon fibers are as follows:

  • UHM (ultra high modulus). Modulus of elasticity > 65400 ksi (450GPa).
  • HM (high modulus). Modulus of elasticity is in the range 51000-65400 ksi (350-450GPa).
  • IM (intermediate modulus). Modulus of elasticity is in the range 29000-51000 ksi (200-350GPa).
  • HT (high tensile, low modulus). Tensile strength > 436 ksi (3 GPa), modulus of elasticity < 14500 ksi (100 GPa).
  • SHT (super high tensile). Tensile strength > 650 ksi (4.5GPa).


Pankaj Goyal (Team Techkiddy)

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